Sabtu, 04 Juni 2011

Sufis Order In Indonesia

INTRODUCTION

The Growt of tarikat in the world begined since of three and four century of Hijri, the development and progress it occurs in the 6th and 7th century Hijri. Syaih Abdul Qadir Jailani is the person who first founded in the early Thrikat in 6 H century, which was followed by other tariqats. All tariqat that develops in this period is the continuation of Sunni mysticism Al Ghazali. And with the establishment of various tariqat, Sufism Sunni experiencing a new stage of development until now.
The generally process activities in the tariqat begins with taking "oath" bai'at of pupils in the presence of Shaikh after they are did repent of all sin. And then  students undergo tariqat with a maximum to the point of perfection and get a diploma then became caliph Sheikh or other tariqat establish if allowed. Therefore, in the tareqat agreed that tariqat have three common characteristics: Sheikh, students and bai'at. Although the model of the appointment a leader so not all same.
The Growth of tariqat in Indonesia go equal with developments in Islamic Countries. Every Indonesian people who studied and returned from studying in Mecca can certainly bring a diploma from his syaih to teach of certain tariqat back in Indonesia. for example Fansuri, is syaih tariqat Qadiriyah; Arraniri is syaih tariqat Rifa'iyah; Abd al-Ra'uf Sinkel is Syaih tariqat Syatariyah; and Al-Palimbani is tariqat Sammaniyah. Al Palimbani is introducing syaih tariqat in Indonesia.
Speaking  about Indonesian tariqat that obtained many sympathy and supporters are tariqat Khalwatiyah, Syatariyah, Qadiriyah and Alawiyah. Most population tarikat Khalwatiyah in southern calabacy region, Syatariyah in South Sumatra, Alawiyyiyah have spread in Indonesia through descent 'Alawiyyin' and his disciples, while a lot Qadiriyah spread in various parts of Indonesia.

DISCUSSION

1.        Tarikat  Sathariyah

A.  The history and founders of tarikat Syathariyah
              Tariqa Syattariyah first appeared in India in the 15th century. These tariqat ascribed to figure credited with popularizing and developing it, Abdullah al-Syattar. Initially this tariqa better known in Iran and Transoksania (Central Asia) with name Isyqiyah. While in the territory of the Ottoman Empire, the orders are called Bistamiyah. Both names are derived from the name of Abu Yazid al-Isyqi, regarded as the main characters. But in subsequent developments Syattariyah Order not consider himself as a Sufi branch of unity everywhere. This congregation is considered as a separate tariqa that has its own characteristics in the beliefs and practices. Only little is known about Abdullah ash-Syattar.
              Abdullah al-Suhrawardi is descended Syihabuddin Syattar. Most likely he was born in one place in around Bukhara. Here also he was officially ordained into the Order member Isyqiyah by his teacher, Muhammad Arif. Ash-Syattar ratio derived from the word syatara, it means splitting the two, and seems to split in this case is the sentence monotheist Nafi lived in the dhikr itsbat, la ilaha (Nafi), and illa (itsbah), is also an affirmation of his teacher on the degree of spiritual achievement that then made ​​him entitled to receive the delegation of rights and authority as Washitah (Murshid).
              The terms of Syattar according to Najm al-Din Kubra, is the highest level of spiritual achievement after Akhyar and Abrar. Third of term in similiar hierarchy, then also used in this Syattariyah Order. Syattar in this is the Sufi tariqa that have been able to negate the substance, nature, and af'al them selves (body and soul form). But caused it popularity is not growing in his homeland, even more it to fade due to the development of the Naksabandiyah order, Abdullah al-Syattar has sent to India by his teacher. In India he gained popularity and has developed his order. It is not known whether the change of Isyqiyah  Order name that previous to the the Syattariyah Order on its own initiative seeking to establish new tariqa since the beginning of his arrival in India or at the initiative of his pupils . He lived in India until diad (1428.)
              The tradition of tariqa that breathes India was brought to the Holy Land by a prominent Sufi figures, Sibghatullah bin Ruhollah (1606), one of the Wajihuddin students, and established the zawiyah in Medina. Sheikh was not only teach the Order Syattariah, but also several of other tariqa, for example the Order Naqsyabandiyah. Then the Order is disseminated and popularized to other Arab-speaking world by his principal disciple, Ahmad Syimnawi (w.1619). also by one of his chalipate, then appeared to hold the helm of tariqa, a teacher from Palestine, Ahmad al-Qusyasyi (w.1661). After Ahmad al-Qusyasyi died, Ibrahim al-Kurani (d. 1689), Turkish, appear to succeed him as supreme leader and advocate of the tariqa Syattariyah quite famous in the area of ​​Medina. Two of the latter in the above, Ahmad al-Qusyasyi and Ibrahim al-Kurani, is a teacher of Abdul Rauf Singkel and then successfully developing tariqa Syattariyah in Indonesia.
              Before Abdul Rauf, there has been a Sufi figures that declared responsible for developing Syattariyah doctrine in the archipelago through his book Tuhfat al-Mursalat ila ar Ruh an-Nabi, a relatively short work about wahdat al-wujud. He is Muhammad ibn al-Bunhanpuri Fadlullah (d. 1620),one of the Wajihuddin disciples. in the Tuhfat al-Mursalat book, outlines seven dignity of metaphysical that more popular in the archipelago than the works of Ibn Arabi. Martin van Bruinessen suspect that the possibility for a variety of interesting ideas from this book that integrates with the tariqa Syattariyah, so that later disciples from Indonesia who studied with al-Qusyasyi and Al-Kurani more like this tariqa than other tariqa that are taught by two their teachers. Abdul Rauf himself that later joined in coloring the history of Indonesian Islamic mysticism in the 17th century, he using the opportunity to study especially Sufism dicipline when conducting Hajj in the year 1643. He settled in Saudi Arabia for 19 years and studied with various religious figurs and renowned experts tariqa. After Ahmad Qusyasyi died, he returned to Aceh and develop his tariqa
.             His fame quickly spread outside the territory of Aceh, through his disciples that spread the tariqa was carrying. for example, in West Sumatra was developed by Sheikh Burhanuddin pupils from Pesantren in Ulakan; West Java, from Kuningan area to Tasikmalaya, by Abdul Muhyi. Then from West Java, the orders are then spread to Central Java and East Java. In South calabacy spread by one of the Order Syattariyah characters that pretty well known the and also a direct disciple of Ibrahim al-Kurani, Joseph Tajul Khalwati (1629-1699). Martin mentioned that several branches of this tariqa is found in Java and Sumatra, that one with the other unrelated. Martin continued that relatively easily combined with various local traditions, he became a tariqa that the most "mempribumi" among the various existing tariqa. On the other hand, through this Syattariyah the metaphysical sufisme ideas and a variety of symbolic classification based on the teachings of the dignity of seven to be part of the popular belief of the Javanese.


B.  The doctrine of Traiqat Asahatariyah

              The relationship between God and nature as viewed by Syattariyah explained that: in the first of this nature created by God from the Nur Muhammad. Before all things were created, he was in the knowledge of God that is named A'yan Tsabitah). He is the shadow of the Essence of God. After Tsabitah A'yan incarnated in A'yan Khrijiyah (the outside reality of God), then A'yan Kharijiyyah was a shadow of Who Owns the shadows, and he is none other than Him.
              The development of this tariqa is intended to develop a concept that will raise awareness of Allah in their hearts, but not necessarily through a transitory stage '. Followers of Tariqa Syattariyah believe that the way to God is as much of motion and breathing creature. However, most main way in this tariqa is the path pursued by the Akhyar, Abrar, and Syattar. A salik before to the Syattar stage, must first achieve perfection at the level Akhyar ( those selected) and Abrar ( those best) andmastered the secrets of dhikr . For that there are ten rules that must pass to reach the goal of this tariqa, that is repentance(taubat), ascetic, resignation(tawaqal), qana'ah, uzlah, muraqabah, patient, Ridla, dhikr, and musyahadah.
              As with other orders, in the Tariqa Syattariyah was highlight dhikr aspects in his doctrine. The three groups referred above, each of them has a method of dhikr and meditation to achieve divine intuition, appreciation, and closeness to Allah SWT. The Abrar busied themselves with the hard asceticism exercises or the ascetic life, suffering endurance exercise, avoid crime, and tried always to purify the heart. Who's the Syattar get one with direct guidance from the spirits of the guardians(para wali). According to the characters, the dhikr of Syattar is the fastest the way to arrive to Allah SWT. In this tariqa, known seven kinds of dhikr Muqaddima, as the court or a stairs to get into Tariqa Syattariyah, that is adjusted by seven kinds of appetite of human. The seven kinds of dhikr is taught for the human ideal to come back and get to God to be saved by riding a seven-lust that. The seven kinds of dhikr is as follows:

1.      Dhikr tawaf, is dhikr by rotating the head, starting from the left shoulder toward the right shoulder, with say “laa ilaha” while holding breath. Once on the right shoulder, drawn breath and then saying “illallah” that struck into the hearts, which lies about two fingers below the left breast, where lawwamah lust nest.
2.      Nafi itsbat dhikr, is dhikr with laa ilaha illa, with more hardened his voice Nafi(negation), laa ilaha, rather than his itsbat, illallah, that is pronounced like the voice entering into that master of his  Allah name.
3.      itsbat faqat Dhikr, is dhikr with illallah, illallah, illallah, that strucked into the deep hearts .
4.      Ismu dhikr Dzat, dhikr with say Allah, Allah, Allah, that strucked into the middle of breasts, where the spirit that marked the life and human life.
5.      Dhikr Taraqqi, is dhikr with say Allah Hu, Allah Hu. Dhikr of Allah is taken from the breasts and Hu put into verse al-makmur (brain, the headquarters of mind). Dhikr is intended for the mind is always illuminated by Divine Light(cahaya Tuhan).
6.      dhikr Tanazul, is dhikr wit say -Allah Hu, Hu-Allah. Dhikr Hu was taken from verse al-prosper, and Allah is inserted into the breasts. Dhikr is intended for a salik always have that high awareness as a human being the Divine Light
7.      Dhikr isim Ghaib, is dhikr Hu, Hu, Hu with his eyes screwed and mouth clenched-ketengah right then directed toward the center of the chest depth of taste.
The seven kinds of dhikr above is based on the word of Allah in Surat Al-Mukminun section 17: "And verily We have created above all of you seven the way, and we similarly will not be unmindful of creation We (the presence of seven way ) ". The seven kinds of lust that have ridden it, as follows: ammarah Lust, Lawwamah Lust, Mulhimah Lust, Muthmainnah Lust, Radhiyah Lust, Mardliyah Lust, and kamilah Lust.
C.  The silsila of Tarikat Syattariyah

The following is an example of Tariqa Syattariyah silsila brought by the Murshid or wasithahnya in Indonesia: Nabi Muhammad SAW to Sayyidina Ali bin Abi Thalib, estavet to Sayyidina Hasan bin Ali asy-Syahid, continew to Imam Zainal Abidin, to Imam Muhammad Baqir, to Imam Ja'far Syidiq, to Abu Yazid al-Busthami, to Syekh Muhammad Maghrib, to Syekh Arabi al-Asyiqi, to Qutb Maulana Rumi ath-Thusi, to Qutb Abu Hasan al-Hirqani, to Syekh Hud Qaliyyu Marawan Nahar, to Syekh Muhammad Asyiq, to Syekh Muhammad Arif, to Syekh Abdullah asy-Syattar, to Syekh Hidayatullah Saramat, to Syekh al-Haj al-Hudhuri, to Syekh Muhammad Ghauts, to Syekh Wajihudin, to Syekh Sibghatullah bin Ruhullah, to Syekh Ibnu Mawahib Abdullah Ahmad bin Ali, to Syekh Muhammad Ibnu Muhammad, Syekh Abdul Rauf Singkel, to Syekh Abdul Muhyi (Safarwadi, Tasikmalaya), to Kiai Mas Bagus (Kiai Abdullah) di Safarwadi, to Kiai Mas Bagus Nida' (Kiai Mas Bagus Muhyiddin) di Safarwadi, to Kiai Muhammad Sulaiman (Bagelan, Jateng), to Kiai Mas Bagus Nur Iman (Bagelan), to Kiai Mas Bagus Hasan Kun Nawi (Bagelan) to Kiai Mas Bagus Ahmadi (Kalangbret, Tulungagung), to Raden Margono (Kincang, Maospati), to Kiai Ageng Aliman (Pacitan), to Kiai Ageng Ahmadiya (Pacitan), to Kiai Haji Abdurrahman (Tegalreja, Magetan), to Raden Ngabehi Wigyowinoto Palang Kayo Caruban, to Nyai Ageng Hardjo Besari, to Kiai Hasan Ulama (Takeran, Magetan), to Kiai Imam Mursyid Muttaqin (Takeran), to Kiai Muhammad Kusnun Malibari (Tanjunganom, Nganjuk) and kontinew KH. Muhammad Munawar Affandi (Nganjuk).
2.        Tarikat Khalwatiyah

A.  The history of tariqat Khalwatiyah and founders

           Generally, the name of a tariqa is taken from the name of the founder of the tariqa, such as Qadiriyah of Sheikh Abdul Qadir Al-Gilani or Naqsyabandiyah of Baha Uddin Naqsyaband. But Tariqa Khalwatiyah actually is taken from the word “khalwat” that means to be alone to contemplate. He picked this name because of frequent Sheikh Muhammad Al-Khalwati (d. 717 H), founder of Tariqa Khalwatiyah  in quiet areas by "nasabiyah", Tariqa is a branch of Tariqa Khalwatiyah Az-Zahidiyah, a branch of Al-Abhariyah, and branch of the As-Suhrawardiyah, founded by Sheikh Syihabuddin Abi Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi al-Baghdadi (539-632 H).
           Tariqa Khalwatiyah brought to Egypt by Mustafa al-Bakri (Kamaluddin bin Ali bin Mustafa al-Bakri al-Siddiqi), a Sufi poet(penyair) from Damascus, Syria. He took tariqa from her teacher by the name of Sheikh Abdul Latif bin Sheikh Husamuddin al-Halabi. Because of the rapid development of this tariqa in Egypt, do not be surprised if Mustafa al-Bakri considered a thinker of Khalwatiyah by his followers. Because besides actively spread the teachings of Khalwatiyah he also trained Sufi literature. Among his most famous work is Tasliyat Al-Ahzan (eraser Grief)
Of about the 11th H and 17 H century, tarikat khalwatiah become an important part in Ottoman politics. Tariqa Khalwatiyah  have peak growth in the Sulaiman and Sultan Selim I. After that continue and grow into the kingdom Ottaman in the same century. Become stronger anymore when in Albania until 1967 did cultural revolusi then penetrated in to Yugoslavia. Subsequent developments in Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. In Turkey it self, the tariqat Khalwatiyah and other tariqa have killed of about 1925, but its existence maintened and survive, especially Khalwatiyah-Jarriyah that actively continue until the center of Istanbul.
Tarikat Khalwatiyah in Indonesia introduced by Sheikh Yusuf al-Taj al-Mankatsi Khalwati. He is also called 'Crown Khalwatiyyah'. The first one who introduced the Khalwatiyah silsila to Indonesia, and in calabacy remained closely associated with his name. Khalwatiyya pedigree does not mean that the order only where Yusuf  started, owever. He spent some of time in Arabic and studied with various teachers. He spent some of time in Arabic and studied with various teachers. In his treatise Safinat an-Najah, he mentioned various salik that he studied, with the name of spiritual preceptors and their predecessors. His initiation in Khalwatiyya occurred in Damascus, where he might have gone for the purpose of paying respects at the Temple of the mystic Muhyiddin Ibn al-Arab. Joseph told that teacher who initiated him, Abu Barakat Ayyub b. Ahmad al-Khalwati al-Quraishi, the prayer leader and preacher (imam and Khatib) in the Ibn al-`Arabi mosque. He also gave his Silsila for this order, that runs through the famous founder, Dede `Umar al-Khalwati (d. ca. 1497), until ninth-century the mystical of Junaid famous in Baghdad.

B.  The doctrine and dzikir of tarikat Khalwatiyah
In Tariqa Khalwatiyah was known the activity of a practice that  called al-Asma 'As-sab'ah (seven names). That is seven kinds of dhikr or seven levels of soul that should be read by every salik.
The first dhikr is La ilaaha illa (the admission that there is no god except Allah). Dhikr on the first level of the soul is called  an-Naf al-ammarah (that commanded the evil lust, anger). The soul is is considered as the soul that the most of dirtiest and always influence some one to do acts of sin and immorality or bad, like stealing, murder, kill, etc.
Second, Allah (God). At the second level of the soul is called an-nafs al-Lawwamah (spirit of rebuke). The soul have  considered as the soul that is clean and tell the good qualities always in their owners and rebuked if there is a desire to do bad act.
Third, Huwa (He). Dhikr on the third level is called an-nafs al-mulhamah (soul inspired.) The soul is is considered that cleanest and has been inspired by God, so they can choose which that good or bad
Fourth, Haq (All-True). Levels of soul is called an-nafs al-Muthmainnah (peaceful soul). The soul is in addition to clean also is considered quiet in the face of all life's problems or other mental shocks.
Fifth, Hay (The Supreme Life). Also called dhikr an-nafs ar-Radliyah .The soul is getting clean, quiet and willing to happened of their owners, because it all the gift of  God.
Sixth, Qayyum (The Supreme Jaga). The levels of soul are also called an-Nafs Mardliyah (soul pleasure). In addition to this spirit more clean, quiet, willing to all the gift of God is also getting his pleasure.
Seventh, Qahhar (Mighty). The soul is also called an-nafs al-kamilah are the (perfect soul's). And this is the last soul or peak spirit that the most perfect and will continue to perfection during the life human.
The seven levels of soul dhikr above essentially is based on the verses of the Quran. The first Levels is based on a letter Yusuf section 53: "Actually the soul is always comandt to the ugliness. "
The second level of surat al-Qiyamah section 2: "And I do not to witness the spirit of rebuke. " The third Levels of of the letter as-Shams section 7 and 8: "By the soul and the perfected. God inspired the soul of the crime and obedient ". Fourth Levels of of surat al-Fajr section 27: "O soul that calm ". The fifth and sixth Levels of of surat al-Fajr section 28: "Return unto your God with pleasure and pleasured ". As for the seven levels that have been perfect, or that is above all the soul, is explicitly not in the Quran, because the Quaran are all perfection of all the dhikr and soul of human. Wallahu a’lam
3.        Tarikat Sammaniyah

A.     The History of Tarikat Samaniyah
              Tariqa Sammaniyah was founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al Karim al Madan al Syafi’i al Samman (1130-1189/1718-1775). He was born in Medina family of Quraish. Among the disciples and followers, he is more known by the name al Sammani or Muhammad (Shaykh Samman). While teaching at Sanjariyah, Shaikh Samman apparently spent much of his life in Medina and stayed at the historic house owned by Abu Bakr al-Siddiq.
              Shaikh Samman actually not only mastered in tariqa but al so in other Islamic sciences. He was studied Islamic law, with  fifth famous ulama: Muhammad al Waqqaq, Sayyid Ali al-Athar, Ali al Kurdi, Abdul Wahhab, Al Thantawi (in Mecca) and Said Hillal Al Makki. He has also been studying with to Muhammad Hayyat, a muhaddis with decent reputation in Haramayn and inisiated as fundamental of tariqa Naqsabandiyah. With Samman together, there are Muhammad Hayyat is also Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab, an opponent of heresy and polytheism practices and al so Wahhabiyah founder.
              Shaikh Samman also learn the various tariqa like Naqsabandiyah, qodiriyah, khalwatiyah and syadziliyah. In the course of learning, he much influence from tariqa Naqsabandiyah. Especially influenced by 'Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulusi, the great figure of tarikat Naqsabandiyah that is also one of teacher Mustafa al-Bakri. Al-Nabulusi also well known as a productive author is the defender of Ibn al-'Arabi and 'Abd al-Karim al-Jilli. From the teachings of various tariqa, he is blande by combining techniques of dhikr, other readings, and mystical teachings of all these tarikat with some extras, such as qashidah and other readings that he set up itself. Blend of this tarikat and then becomes a name, tarikat samaniyah.
              Sammâniyyah, as tariqa, began to spread in Indonesia at the end of the 18th century of M. The existence of this tariqa in South Kalimantan is inseparable from the existence of two first-generation major scholar in Banjar, namely Sheikh Muhammad al-Banjârî Arsyad and Sheikh Muhammad al-Nafis Banjârî. There are two versions about opinions who the brougt tarekat that was rampant in Banjar. The first version says Sheikh Arsyad was the most responsible for the spread of this tariqa in South Kalimantan through his Kanz al-Sheikh ma'rifah and Qasidah Sammân compliment. While the second version mentions Sheikh Nafis was the bearer of this Order on the basis of identifying themselves to thistariqa in his book ad-Durr an-Nafis
B.  The doctrine and dzikr of tarikat samaniyah

The Doctrine tarikat Sammaiyah include:

1.      Tawasul, the meaning of tawasul was  begged a blessing to certain people who made ​​wasilah (intermediary) in Sufism, it is meant to be achieved. The object of Tawasul is the Prophet Muhammad, his family, and his companions, Asma Allah, the aulia, fiqh scholars, sufi, parents, etc
2.      Wahdat al-Wujud, is the stage where it united with the essence of this nature, which is haqiqat Nur Muhammad, or Muhammad
3.      Nur Muhammad, is one secret of all secrets of God. Nur Muhammad was the first to come before the other intangible, while his form is the nature or essence of this natural form
4.      nsan kamil, the perfect human beings in terms of the Shari'a is the prophet Muhammad, while in terms of nature is nur Muhammad. Relations can be described like this: the prophet Muhammad is a corridor leading to the perfect human being, namely the nature of the "shadow" of God. Islamic people who are interested to god to see her go through this corridor, namely following in the footsteps of Prophet Muhammad.
4.        Tarekat Qadiriyah Wa Nasyabandiyah

A.   Sejarah Perkembanganya
Qadiriyah Wa Naksyabandiyah is a tariqat that univikasi from two major tariqat which is tariqat Qadiriyah and Naqsabandiyah. Merging the two tariqat is modified to form an independent tariqat, and its different from tariqat before. The fundamental difference, especially in riyadat and rituals
Tariqat Qadiriyah Wa Nasyabandiyah founded by the syaih agung Masjid al-Haram in Mecca Ahmad ibn Abd Khattib. Sambasial-Ghaffar al-Jawi (died: 1878). He was a Murshid tariqat Qadiriyah in addition also have said tariqat Naqsabandiyah musrsyid. He is Indonesian origin who lived in Mecca until death.
Actually tariqa Qodiriyah wa Naqsabandiyah not only univication frm two big tariqa, but there is combination of five tariqa like as: Anfasiyah, Junaidiyah, dan Muafaqad. So that name drawn from two tariqat biggest. Traqa is not growing rapidly, except in the southeast asia region.
In my opinion, the factors of cause growing this tariqat not rapidly across the country, even to the world is not well institutionalized. It can be seen from the largement, where after the death of Sheik Khattib and replaced Sheikh al-Banteni Abd.Karim, the caliphs break away and each acting as a Murshid who are not bound by mursyid another. Thus stand- new caliphs (kemursyidan) and independent character
B.      The Spread of tariqat Qodiriyah Wa Naksabandiyah
a.    West Java: have developed independently by Sheikh Talkhah, followed by Ibn Abdullah Ibn Mubarak. He founded the center spread of this tariqat in Tasikmalaya (Suryalaya) and he then famous called as Abah Sepuh, replaced by Abah Anom (Sahibul Wafa Tajul Arifin), After the death of Abahsepuh who son of Abah sepuh who led the boarding school until now. Under his leadership tariqat Qadiriyah Wa naksabandiyah in his calliph (kemursyidan)  Suryalaya growing rapidly. By using riyadah method this in tariqat, Abah Anom was developing alternative psychotherapy, especially for adolescents, mental degradation because drug abusers. The Murshid has enough Talqin representative spread across 35 regions including Singapore and Malaysia
b.   Central Java; centered in pesantren Futuhiyah Mranggen, Demak of Central Java. Brought by Sheikh Abdul Karim and he acted as an independent Murshid. It is growing rapidly in Central Java under KH. Muslikh Ibn Abdul Karim. Caliph who had been independent in his caliph was given the freedom to independently due to reason away the caliphate. and then called Kubro Deputy. Even through many kyai/callip that be Murshid and largmen the tariqa independently, speciallyin  Jawa East.
c.    East Java; have spread fastest in Pondok Pesantren Rejoso Jombang. From here tariqat Qadiriyah Wa Naqsabandiyah spread to various parts of the country even till abroad. The million people who are here entering this tariqat through of  Kemursyidan silsila.

C.      Ajaran Tariqat Qadiriya Wa Naksyabandiyah

            At least there are four principal doctrine on the tariqat Qadariayah Wa Naqsabandiyah which are as below:
a.       Perfection Suluk
It is a conviction that perfection Suluk penetrated kesufian road in order to get closer to to God. Perfection it going if it is in three dimensional of Islami, which is: Islam, Iman and Ihsan.
Doctrine is packaged in a three-in-one doctrine is very popular with the term: Shari'a, tariqat and hakikat.
Shari'a is legislation dimension in Islam, which includes the terms and provisions of God through Rasul,  either in the form of commands and prohibitions. Tariqat is the dimension of the practice of Shari'a that while the essence is the dimension of appreciation for the practice of shari'ah. With the appreciation that's going to get the sweetness of faith some one called Ma'rifat
b.      Moral Disciples
the extremely popular Book among Sunnis and became a reference for most tariqat is Tanwir al Qulub fi Mu'ammalati 'Allam al-friendly, the work of Mohammad Amin al-Kurdi and the book of Al-Anwar al-Qudsiyah, the work of renowned Sufi Abdul Wahab al Syeih - Syairani, in addition to the book by the founder himself tariqat Qadariyah (Syaekh Abdul Qadir Jailani), entitled al-Gunyah Li Talibi Tariq al-Haq.
In the third book, and elaborated at length about the adab to students (those who wanted "to meet" God). In the book explained how important the correct adab, and this is the central tenet that there are elements in the school of Sufism. Broadly speaking, a student (salik) or expert tariqat must maintain four adab, which is adab to Allah, To yeikh (Mursyd and teachers), the Ikhwan, and moral to yourself
c.       Dzikir
      Dhikr in tariqat Qadiriyah wa Naksabandiyah is oral or spiritual activity (heart) to mention and remember asma Allah both in the form of (sentence), or ism essence (the name of God), and mention has beenbai’at or talqinby the muttasil al a Musyid - fayd (concatenated chains and blessing). Dhikr can be studied and not from a prophet do Khidir.Tetapi initiative must be correct and should be reduced through a series of spiritual leaders who can be returned to the Prophet.
      In doctrine tariqat Naksabandiyah Wa Qadiriyah there are two types which is dhikr dhikr ism Nafi istbat and ismu dzat. Nafi istbat is the dhikr of Allah by calling Tahlil phrase "la ilaha illa Allah. " Dhikr ismu dzat is the essence of doctrine is done tariqat Qadiriyah Jahr (voiced). While the essence is the dhikr dhikr Ism Allah sengan call "Allah, Allah, Allah" as sirr or silent (in heart). It also called dhikr Dhikr Lathaif a hallmark merupan tariqat Naqsabandiyah. Both these dhikr in Bai'atat once by Murshid in the first bai'at
d.      Muraqabah
      Muraqabah which in Arabic means observing or waiting for something with full attention is one part darikonsep artinay awareness of Sufism that has sustained a servant of God supervision over all it appears. The difference with Dhikr is the centralization of consciousness or concentration. Dhikr has the object of knowledge on the symbol or phrase while muraqabah is to maintain awareness of the meaning, nature and God's will of god. Similarly, the media used also have differences. Dhikr using the tongue (physical or spiritual), sedangkanmuraqabah using pure consciousness in the form of imagination and power khayalli

            In tariqat Qadiriyah wa Naqsabandiyah, Muraqabah believed to be the origin of all goodness, happiness and success. A servant will not be until at muraqabah except after muhsabat al-nafs and able to manage time well. There are twenty kinds (20) kind of way muraqabah. In the tariqat parent (tarikat Qadariyah Wa Naksabandiyah) each memilii 13 kinds murraqabah way. However, when analyzed, it is clear that the existing system on tariqat murraqabah Qadiriyah Wa Naqsabandiyah is derived from the existing ordinance in tariqat muraqabah Naqsabandiyah, Mujaddiyah.
.           There are 13 kinds of which there are 20 kinds muraqabah on tariqat qadiriyah wa Naqsabandiyah, exactly the same as in tarikat Naqasbandiyah Muraqabah Mujjadiyah, while the rest is the deepening of certain species such muraqabah tarekat. And among the 20 types of these Muraqabah there are only 3 kinds muraqabah having a similar object (not the same in name and procedure), with the existing system in tariqat muraqabah Qadiriyah

CLOSING

So this paper we submit, though there is a lack somewhat to provide information to my friends about the Sufi orders 2.




REFERENCES

Abdullah Hawas, Perkembangan Ilmu TAsawuf dan Tokoh-tokohnya di Nusantara, Surabaya; Al-   Ikhlas, 1980
lstadiyantha, 1988. “Pengantar Pengkajian Sastra Sufi”. (Makalah). Pertemuan Ilmiah Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia X Se-Jawa Tengah den DIY. Sukoharjo - Surakarta: IKIP Veteran.
Kharisudin Aqib, Al Hikmah, Memahami teosofi Tarikat Qadiriyah Wa Naqsabandiyah, Surabaya; Dunia Ilmu, 2000,
Nasr Sayd Hossein, Islamic Spiritually Manifestation, The crossroad Publishing Company, 1990,
Syihab Alwie, DR, Phd, , Antara Tasawuf Sunni dan Tasawuf Falsafi, Akar Tasawuf Di Indonesia, Pustaka Iman, 2009
Schimmel Annimarie, Mystical Dimention Of Islam(Terj), Jakarta: Pustaka Firdaus 1986
Spencer J Trimingham, ,The Sufi Order in Islam, Oxford Univercity Press(3) , I997
Sejarah Asytariyah,www.duniasufi.com/sejarahasytariah
Wikipedia Indonesia/www.wikipedia.com/tarikat khalwatiyah,diunduh tanggal 20 Mei
Wafa Tajul Arifin Shahibul, U’qud al- Juman Tanbih, Jakarta: Yayasan Serba Bakti Korwil DKI
MELACAK VISI TRANSFORMATIF
TAREKAT SAMMÂNIYYAH
DI KALIMANTAN SELATAN
Pengantar Redaksi :
Lembaga Kajian Keislaman dan Kemasyarakatan(L K- 3) bekerja sama dengan Tabloid Serambi Ummah Banjarmasin Post selama tahun 2001 setiap bulannya telah menyelenggarakan kajian intensif tentang fenomena gerakan tarekat Sammâniyyah di Kalimantan Selatan. Kajian ini terbagi kepada beberapa sub-tema yang meliputi: kajian tentang asal-usul, tokoh-tokoh penyebar, Ajaran, dan Pengaruhnya di Masyarakat Banjar. Adapun kajian yang ingin diturunkan dalam laporan rubrik Diskusi Ahli Jurnal KebudayaanKANDI L edisi 4 ini menyangkut persoalan hubungan tarekat Sammâniyyah dengan transformasi sosial masyarakat Banjar. Ada tiga pembicara yang secara khusus menjadi narasumber utama dalam mendiskusikan masalah ini, yakni : Prof. Dr. HM. Zurkani Jahja, DR. A. Athailah, dan Drs. Wahyudin, M.Si. Berikut laporan intisari diskusi yang diolah oleh Irfan, M.Hum selama berlangsungnya diskusi tersebut.
Istilah tarekat diambil dari bahasa Arab,tharîqah yang berarti “jalan” atau “metode”. Tarekat, dalam terminologi sufistik, adalah jalan atau metode khusus untuk mencapai tujuan spiritual. Dalam sejarah tasawuf, konsep ini telah muncul dalam perkembangan tasawuf abad ke-3 dan 4 H. Namun demikian, konsep ini pada abad tersebut lebih bermakna “seperangkat etika dan moral yang menjadi pegangan aliran para sufi”. Sementara konsep tarekat yang digunakan sekarang ini mengacu pada pengertian “tarekat” yang merujuk pada pelbagai tarekat besar yang muncul pada sekitar abad ke-6 dan 7 H (12 atau 13 M), khususnya sejak al-Ghazâlî berhasil merumuskan konsep tasawuf-Sunni atautashawwuf- ‘amalî; sebuah antitesis dari perkembangan sebelumnya,tashawwuf- falsafî.
Sementara istilah Sammâniyyah mengacu pada sebuah nama tarekat yang merupakan hasil rumusan atau formulasi Syekh Muhammad ‘Abd al-Kârim al-Sammân. Syekh yang dilahirkan di Madinah pada tahun 1719 ini menggabungkan metode-metode dan bacaan- bacaan berbagai tarekat, seperti Khalwâtiyyah, Qâdiriyyah, Naqsabandiyyah, ‘Adiliyyah, dan Syâdziliyyah, dalam paduan yang khas dan berdiri sendiri. Oleh karena itulah, walaupun
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tarekat ini secara formal merupakan salah satu cabang dari tarekat Khalwâtiyyah, namun ia telah menjadi sebuah tarekat tersendiri. Perpaduan ini kemudian dikenal dengan nama tarekat Sammâniyyah, yang banyak disinyalir oleh para ahli sebagai tarekat pertama yang memperoleh banyak pengikut di Asia Tenggara
Sammâniyyah, sebagai tarekat, mulai tersebar di Indonesia pada penghujung abad ke-18 M. Adapun keberadaan tarekat ini di Kalimantan Selatan tidak bisa dilepaskan dari keberadaan dua ulama besar generasi pertama masyarakat Banjar, yaitu Syekh Muhammad Arsyad al-Banjârî dan Syekh Muhammad Nafîs al-Banjârî. Ada dua versi pendapat tentang siapa pembawa tarekat yang tengah marak di masyarakat Banjar saat ini. Versi pertama menyebutkan Syekh Arsyad-lah yang paling bertanggung jawab atas tersebarnya tarekat ini di Kalimantan Selatan melalui karyanya Kanz al-Ma’rifah dan Qasidah pujian Syekh Sammân. Sementara versi kedua menyebutkan Syekh Nafîs-lah sebagai pembawa tarekat ini atas dasar pengidentifikasian diri kepada tarekat ini dalam karyanya ad-Durr an-Nafîs.
Terlepas dari siapa yang paling bertanggung jawab atas tersebarnya tarekat ini di Kalimantan Selatan, maraknya kembali tarekat Sammâniyyah ini akhir-akhir ini di daerah ini memang tidak bisa diragukan lagi berkat jasa dari KH. Muhammad Zaini Abdul Ghanî. Lewat Mejelis Pengajianar-Rawdlah yang diselenggarakan tokoh yang dikenal dengan sebutan Guru Ijai ini di komplek Sekumpul Martapura, tarekat ini bisa dikatakan sebagai tarekat terbesar di Kalimantan Selatan khususnya, dan Kalimantan umumnya, saat ini. Menariknya, Guru Ijai ini merupakan keturunan dari Syekh Arsyad yang mendapatkan ajaran tarekat ini lewat KH. Sarwani Abdan dari Bangil Jawa Timur, yang juga merupakan keturunan Syekh Arsyad paling terkenal.
Begitu populernya tarekat Sammâniyyah ini di Kalimantan Selatan saat ini hingga setiap tahunnya, tepatnya 2 Dzul Hijjah, komplek Sekumpul Martapura tempat dilangsungkannya pengajian Guru Ijai berubah menjadi pusat berkumpulnya ratusan ribu umat Islam dari berbagai penjuru wilayah untuk mengikuti upacara haul Syekh Muhammad ‘Abd al-Kârim al-Sammân. Begitu juga, ribuan jamâ’ah tarekat Sammâniyyah yang begitu setia selalu mengahadiri Majelis pengajian yang dipimpin oleh Guru Ijai di komplek tersebut pada hari Kamis dan Ahad setiap minggu. Bahkan, begitu dipujanya Syekh Sammân di kalangan tertentu masyarakat Banjar hingga tidak asing lagi bagi masyarakat di daerah ini
untuk menyaksikan seringnya dilangsungkan Upacara Pembacaan Manâqib Syekh Sammân
dalam berbagai kesempatan.
Barangkali, tarekat Sammâniyyah adalah tarekat pertama yang memperoleh banyak pengikut di kalangan masyarakat awam di Kalimantan Selatan yang benar-benar dapat dimobilisasi. Oleh karena itu, dengan tersebar dan maraknya tarekat ini di kalangan masyarakat Banjar, maka sudah barang tentu akan memberikan pengaruh yang cukup berarti bagi masyarakat di kawasan ini. Salah satu bentuk pengaruh tarekat-tarekat tersebut di kalangan masyarakat Banjar adalah jasanya dalam membangun “sistem sosial organik” yang cukup kuat. Dengan demikian, seiring dengan proses kolonisasi kawasan ini pada akhir abad ke-18 oleh penjajah Belanda, maka sistem sosial organik yang dihasilkan dari penyebaran tarekat tersebut di kawasan ini mampu berperan sebagai “sistem religio-politik” yang melahirkan gerakan sosial antikolonialisme di berbagai wilayah di kawasan ini.
Tarekat Sammâniyyah, dalam masa Perang Banjar (1859-1905), diduga diamalkan dan memiliki pengaruh yang kuat di kalangan tertentu masyarakat Banjar, terutama pejuang- pejuang Perang Banjar. Beberapa peristiwa penting dalam Perang Banjar memperlihatkan indikasi adanya pengaruh tarekat Sammâniyyah, seperti gerakan “Beratib Beamal”.Bahkan, sebagaimana yang banyak disinyalir oleh banyak ahli, Perang Banjar terjadi dan mengalami kematangan ketika seorang guru mulai mengajarkan amalan yang dinamakan “Beratib Beamal”.
Beratib berasal dari kata Arab râtib(jamak: rawatib), artinya dzikir yang diucapkan
sendiri atau dalam kelompok, baik dengan suara keras (dzikir jahar) atau dalam hati (zikir
khafî) dengan tarikan-tarikan napas dan gerakan-gerakan anggota badan tertentu. Sementara
Beamal berarti berbuat hal-hal yang baik atau berdo’a untuk memohon sesuatu. Beratip beamal,
dalam konteks sejarah Perang Banjar, merupakan suatu ritual keagamaan dalam usaha
memohon kekebalan dan keselamatan dalam melawan kolonialisme Belanda.



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